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Causes, Symptoms and Types of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a disease that affects the normal functioning of the mind or body, such as movements or posture. Cerebral palsy happens when an injury to the brain may occur before or during birth; or as far as 2 years after birth. 

Children and adults with cerebral palsy may have difficulties that range from mild to severe and have trouble seeing, feeling, touching, hearing, thinking, or interacting. They may have seizures also. The brain damage does not get worse after the initial injury, but the patient’s ability to function daily can aggravate as they grow.

There are several known causes of cerebral palsy, usually, a problem that happens during the immature, undeveloped brain of the baby while it is growing in the womb. Some other causes include:

              * lack of oxygen

              * traumatic head injury

              * infant infractions

              * bleeding into the brain

              * fetal stroke

              * maternal infections

              * gene mutations

There are five different types based on the part of the brain that is damaged and the way it affects movement:

  1. Spastic Cerebral Palsy – the most common of the 5 types and caused by damage to the brain’s motor cortex, which controls voluntary movement. Another cause is damage to the pyramidal tract, which is responsible for relaying signals to the muscles.
  2. Athetoid Cerebral Palsy – is also called dyskinetic cerebral palsy. This type is caused by damage to the brain part called basal ganglia and/or cerebellum.
  3. Hypotonic Cerebral Palsy – is classified by low muscle tone; and causes problems with involuntary facial movements, also the torso and limbs.
  4. Ataxic Cerebral Palsy is caused by damage to the cerebellum, resulting in issues with balance, coordination, and voluntary movement. Patients may experience tremors and depletion in muscle tone.
  5. Mixed Type Cerebral Palsy is caused by injury to several areas of the brain so that the affected child shows signs of more than one type of cerebral palsy, like spastic and athetoid.

The signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy differ from one person to another. 

The effect of the disease may be on the whole body or just one side of the body, and it may also be limited to one or two limbs. Generally, the signs may include:

Movement and coordination: Spasticity (stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes, lack of balance, difficulty with fine motor skills, difficulty walking, etc.)

Speech and Eating: Delays in speech development, difficulty chewing, swallowing, and eating.

Development: Delays in attaining motor skill milestones, learning difficulties, delayed growth, intellectual development.

Neurological problems: seizures, a problem with vision, difficulty hearing, abnormal touch sensations, mental health conditions, bladder and bowel movement problems.

Adults and children with this disease may require long-term care from a medical team. While there is no cure for cerebral palsy, many treatment options could help improve the patient’s daily functioning. You will choose the care depending on their specific symptoms and needs, which may change over time, and early intervention should provide better outcomes.

People with cerebral palsy can benefit from physiotherapy in all stages of their lives. Physiotherapists are professionals that can help patients stay active and healthy and do everyday functions, such as walking, using the wheelchair, and moving to and from the bathtub. Physiotherapists can also help patients and their families get the necessary equipment to support their movement.

Muscle training exercises can aid in strength, flexibility, motor development, balance, and mobility. Under the guidance of physiotherapists, a parent or caretaker will learn how to care for the patient safely, such as giving them a bath, feeding, etc. A physiotherapist can also guide continuing muscle training and exercise at home.

Suppose you cannot make it to a rehabilitation clinic for several reasons. In that case, the Mission Walk Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Centre can provide a physiotherapist home visit. We assign one of our therapists to come to your home to give home treatment. The home physiotherapist near me will discuss matters that your child or family member would like to receive from the home treatment.

Call us on 91 91773 00194  or email us at rehab@missionwalk.in.  Please speak to one of our staff and discuss the details of the physiotherapy home visit.

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